Tuesday, June 2, 2020
Brief Description of the Five Major Types of Leadership (Essay Sample) Content: LeadershipName:Institution:LeadershipPart I: Brief Description of the Five Major Types of LeadershipAversive LeadershipThis refers to the type of leadership where the leaders uses their authority to instill fear on their employees or people they lead as a way of making them to comply with the rules or follow his or her directives. Such leaders prefer to intimidate, reprimand and punish their followers in case a job is not well done. One of work places that this kind of leadership best fits is the military, where failure to adhere to commanders directive might lead to fatal consequences. Secondly, this type of leadership is appropriate in college or university institutions where principals of such institutions do lay out some sort of punishments for students who do not adhere to the rules of the institution (Sims et al 2009).Transactional LeadershipThis is a form of leadership where the leader of an institution rewards his or her employees for hard work or for exhibiti ng loyalty to him or her or even the institution at large. This type of leadership is best appropriate in a manufacturing institution where employees who put in a lot of effort are rewarded by either promotion or provision of bonus amounts in their salaries. It is also appropriate in sales or marketing department where, individuals who record high sales within a certain period are provided with a higher commission than other salespersons (Sims et al 2009).Transformational LeadershipTransformation leadership is that type of leadership where the leader is required have the capability of motivating other employees to work hard and in harmony towards achieving the goals of an institution. One of the institution through which this type of leadership has succeeded is the Apple Company, where Steve Jobs uses his personal wisdom to encourage his colleagues in the organization to work towards achieving their vision (Sims et al 2009). This form of leadership is equally important in sports tou rnaments; where the captain of a team is required lead by example in transforming the minds of his or her teammate to work towards winning the game even when they are trailing.Directive LeadershipThis is a form of leadership where leaders are expected to be kind and top-down. Such leaders do express their roles by providing directions, instructions and even giving commands to their followers at times. This form of leadership is appropriate to teachers in learning institutions such as kindergarten and primary schools (Sims et al 2009). Directive leadership is equally appropriate for team managers of various teams such as a basketball team where managers are expected to remain kind and give directions, instructions and command to their players .Empowerment LeadershipJust as the name suggest, empowerment form of leadership is that which the Super LeaderÃ delegates some authorities to his or her followers to express their self-leadership at places of work. Here, the empowering leader encourages initiatives of self-confidence, self-problem-solving among other issues (Sims et al 2009). All that the Super LeaderÃ needs to do is to provide information and knowledge to his followers and leave them to express their personal leadership in the institution. This form of leadership is appropriate in a government cabinet where the president acts as the Super LeaderÃ while the Cabinet Secretaries or ministers becomes the followers. Empowerment leadership is equally appropriate in an organization board of management where the Organizations CEO is the Super LeaderÃ while other managers assume the responsibility of followers.Part II 1 Description of Narcissistic and Machiavellian LeadersNarcissistic leader is that type of leader who is only interested in his own success and at the expense of the others. Such leaders have the following characteristics; Desire for power, they have self-confidence, they embrace the culture of creating relationships and have foundations .Machiavelli leadership on the other hand, is that which focuses in creating a working team that are focused on grandness of the task and greatness of the leader rather than having a team that is driven by money and reputation. Characteristics of a Machiavellian leader include the following; they are cunning, they embrace the culture of excelling through manipulating others and they also believe that the end justifies the means. 2 Description of The following people based on their behaviors in the Film Pirates of SiliconÃ Bill GatesBill GatesÃ is depicted in the movie Pirates of SiliconÃ as a narcissistic leader when he approaches Steve Jobs for partnership. Bill Gates narcissistic character comes out because his visit to Steve Job had no genuine intention since he just wanted to destruct Apples growth to create a chance for Microsoft. This example implies that he only cared about the success of his Microsoft at the expense of Steve Jobs Apple thus showing selfishness (Pete r Stiernstedt, 2010), which is one of the qualities of narcissistic leaders. Bill Gates on the other hand also exhibits some of the characteristics of Machiavelli leadership. For instance, he exhibits the cunning trait, when he refuses to accept his pregnant girlfriend because she was working for Apple.Paul Allen and Steve WozniakThese two characters in the film are depicted as loyal employees and partners to their leaders. Paul Allen has prove his loyalty to Bill Gates since high school while Steve Wozniak was a key partner for Apple and worked together in harmony with Steve Jobs in poor conditions in order to attain Steve Jobs vision of resurrecting Apple (Peter Stiernstedt, 2010). These two characters therefore helps in portraying their leaders that is Steve Jobs and Bill Gates as Machiavelli leaders. This is because just as Machiavelli leadership advocates for obtaining partners who are focused on achieving the grand task rather than money and reputation, the two characters ex hibited these qualities to their respective leaders/friend.Steve JobsUnlike Bill Gates, Steve Jobs is a transformative type of leader who believes in empowering his mates to work towards achieving his vision. However, he expresses authoritarian type of leadership whereby he does not embrace the culture of creating good relationship. Even though he rewards good employees, he could also go as far as engaging them in verbal abuse (Peter Stiernstedt, 2010) and never liked to be advised on what to do. These types of leadership qualities exhibited by Steve Jobs shows that he was an adverse type of leader who intimidated his employees. 3 Do you believe that these traits are positive or negative in these leaders?The Narcissistic and Machiavelli leadership traits that Bill Gates exhibited in his organization made a positive impact in his organization as he managed to achieve his objectives. For instance, out of his selfishness, he manipulated Steve Jobs, who gave him access to the technolog y that was developed by Xerox, which he (Bill Gates) later modified to create Microsoft software, which came before Apples innovation. Bill Gates also exhibited self-confidence and the culture of creating relationship, which are both qualities of Machiavelli and Narcissistic leadership. Fortunately, for him this paid off as he managed to approach Steve Jobs who he convinced to accept that Apple needed Microsoft for diversity (Peter Stiernstedt, 2010). However, he studied apple innovation that they had stolen from Xerox to bring Microsoft to life.Steve Jobs on the other hand exhibited both the Machiavelli and Narcissistic leadership traits. Unfortunately, for him, it never paid off, as it was the case with Bill Gates. For instance, his self-confidence in whatever he was doing led him to engage in adverse leadership, which in return did not go well with some of his employees. For instance, his continuous manipulations and intimidation made him lose Steve Wozniak, who opted to leave A pple and engage in teaching. Losing Wozniak, who was a key figure at Apple, also reveals that Steve Jobs did not have the knowledge of creating a healthy relationship with employees. Even though his decision to partnership with Bill Gates indicates that he embraced relationship, the only different is that their relationship with Bill Gates was unhealthy on his side and beneficial to Bill Gates (Peter Stiernstedt, 2010). This is because he did not know when and how to collaborate, a factor that made him to allow Bill Gate to access Apples innovation only to use it in developing his own Microsoft Software. Generally, most of the leadership qualities expressed by Steve Jobs affected him negatively.Part IIIImplicit Theory of LeadershipThis refers to the cognitive ideas about the world that are conceived by individuals, who in return use them to interpret their surroundings and control their behaviors. For instance, different individuals in the world have their own distinctive perceptio n on the qualities of good leaders (Shondrick et al 2010).Demonstration of Implicit Leadership Theory in the Documentary JonestownÃ This theory is expressed in various sections of the theory. One of the scenes in the documentary that Implicit Leadership Theory is when The Peoples Temple that was led by Jim Jones began to attract many followers. It is clear that Jim Jones large congregation in Peoples Temple was influenced by his philanthropic behavior w...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The objective of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) is to protect those who create works, such as artistic works or literary works, as well as those other subject matter, such as films or sounds recordings, from those who would serve to exploit or profit from their labor, skill and creativity. But, what about those who use these protected works and other subject matter for interests different to the above? Such as for educational purposes or for broadcasting? Under the act, there are listed many defences to protect an individual or a corporation from infringement of copyright, or in other words, directly or indirectly, infringing those exclusive rights that the copyright owner possess, also listed under the act . These defencesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Recent conventions have added such works as architectural works, cinematographic films and photographs. Other international conventions include General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), first signed in 1947, and Agre ement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), signed in 1995, which covers trade-related areas of copyright. In the UK, the Copyright Act 1911 (UK), which was an amalgamation of copyright at common law and the Statute of Anne, is also a major influence on Australian copyright law Ã¢â¬â was adopted into Australia by virtue of the Copyright Act 1912 (Cth). This UK piece of legislation also recognized the importance of legislating in this area. In the United States, this area is legislated by the Copyright Act 1976 (USA). This piece of legislation will be discussed below when dealing with fair use defences. It is clear, that on an international scale, the importance of protecting intellectual property is paramount. Works of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s skill, independent thought and labour needs to be protected, to prevent exploitation, rip-offs, and encourage future individuals to create new works or other subject matter other than works. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), as stated above, was introduced in response to the growing need to protect individualÃ¢â¬â¢s creative works or other subject matter from commercial or other exploitation. It contains provisions, which describes what subject matter is protected, and rights ofShow MoreRelatedMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words Ã |Ã 385 Pages441 441 CASE STUDIES A summary of the case analysis I N T R O D U C T I O N Preparing an effective case analysis: The full story Hearing with the aid of implanted technology: The case of CochlearÃ¢â ¢ Ã¢â¬â an Australian C A S E O N E high-technology leader Delta Faucet: Global entrepreneurship in an emerging market C A S E T W O DaimlerChrysler: Corporate governance dynamics in a global company C A S E T H R E E Gunns and the greens: Governance issues in Tasmania C A S E F O U R Succeeding in theRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pages Hanken Business School, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland This book makes it easier to understand the current stand of organization theory. I strongly recommend it to anyone seriously interested in the different intellectual traditions that contribute to our understanding of organizations. Professor Tomas MÃ ¼llern, JÃ ¶nkÃ ¶ping International Business School, Sweden . McAuley, Duberley and JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride through the developments
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. What is risk management? Why is the identification of risks, by listing assets and their vulnerabilities, so important to the risk management process? Risk management is the process of identifying risk, as represented by vulnerabilities, to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information assets and infrastructure, and taking steps to reduce this risk to an acceptable level. Each of the three elements in the C.I.A. triangle, introduced in Chapter 1, is an essential part of every IT organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to sustain long-term competitiveness. When an organization depends on IT-based systems to remain viable, information security and the discipline of risk management must become an integral part of the economic basis for making business decisions. TheseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This means identifying, examining, and understanding the threats facing the organization. You must determine which threat aspects most directly affect the security of the organization and its information assets, and then use this information to create a list of threats, each one ranked according to the importance of the information assets that it threatens. 3. Who is responsible for risk management in an organization? Which community of interest usually takes the lead in information security risk management? Each community of interest has a role to play in managing the risks that an organization encounters. Because the members of the information security community best understand the threats and attacks that introduce risk into the organization, they often take a leadership role in addressing risk. Management and users, when properly trained and kept aware of the threats the organization faces, play a part in the early detection and response process. Management must also ensure that sufficient resources (money and personnel) are allocated to the information security and information technology groups to meet the security needs of the organization. Users work with the systems and the data and are therefore well positioned to understand the value these information assets offer the organization and which assets among the many in use are the most valuable. The information technology community of interest must build secure systems and operate themShow MoreRelated Problems, Solutions, and Futu re of Law Enforcement Intelligence1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfollowing are statements that are misguided, but often thought to be true: 1) All law enforcement agencies can engage in intelligence, 2) Intelligence can be performed by any member of a police department, 3) Intelligence systems are essentially information systems, and 4) Intelligence is nothing more than being prepared. There is confusion over these topics which brings the necessity to revisit the basic elements of intelligence that Intelligence is a specialization, is critical, is measurable, seldom seeksRead MoreThe Cloud Of Cloud Computing1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimportance in cloud computing. Bowles indicates that there s a bright destiny in cloud computing inside the ending of the bankruptcy. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"an increasing number of, we will find that our information and packages aren t residing on our personal computers however alternatively somewhere in our on-line worldÃ¢â¬ (Chap. 9 summary). Who presents those offerings and who carries the fee of the services provided? There are several companies for cloud computing, the services simulate the functions finishedRead MoreAr 600 8 2 Suspension of Favorable Personel Action9062 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesArmy Substance Abuse Program (para 1-13e). Clarifies actions requiring transferable flags (para 1-13). Directs the entering of additional information of DA Form 268 for soldiers on a HQDA promotion list (table 2-4, step 12). Revises provisions regarding retaining beyond expiration term of service, expiration of service agreement, or mandatory release date (chap 2, sec V). Modifies tables 3-1 and 3-2 (paras 3-9a and 3-9b). o o o o o o o o o o o This regulation, dated 30 OctoberRead MoreLaws and Contracts Lesson 291975 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesbuys new inventory on April 10 from Great Products and signs a security agreement, giving Great Products a purchase-money security interest (PMSI) in the new inventory. On the same day, Great Products perfects its interest and notifies EZ Loan and First National. Eagle takes possession of the new inventory on April 15. On April 20, Eagle defaults on all of the loans. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Whose security interest has priority? Great ProductsÃ¢â¬â¢s security interest has priority. Great products has a properly securedRead MoreIdentify a workplace and identify an administrative system3523 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesÃ¯ » ¿1. Identify a workplace and identify an administrative system that requires review or planning. A mining company needs to review a computer network that has been used in the company for last 10 years because the company has a plan to run a business in another state. The new computer network will connect between head office and another office together.This company has 150 staffs in 4 departments (Purchasing, Engineering, Accounting and Human resources). All users will be received a different accessRead MoreMmc 4200 Exam 23513 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesMMC 4200-Spring 2012 Review Sheet for Second Exam CopyrightÃ ©2012 Prof. Sandra Chance Chapter 5- Privacy 1. Where did the right to privacy come from? 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I would like to thank Ashish Dhar, who asRead MoreAccess Controls : Access Control4594 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesAccess Control Abstract Access controls empower the insurance of security resources by limiting access to frameworks and information by clients, applications and different frameworks. It s not spectacular, but rather unquestionably, the occupants of sound access control are the foundation of any undertaking data security program. It looks to avert exercises that could prompt a break of security. Access control includes IAAA-Identification, Authentication, Authorization and Accountability. This paperRead MoreA Critique of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Cost Leadership and Differentiation Strategies10186 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesdatta@nku.edu A paper accepted for presentation at the 9th Oxford Business Economics Conference to be held in Oxford, England, June 22-24. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The internet has affected newspapers and book publishers in various ways. More so in the past, the internet has had more of a negative effect on newspaper and book publishers. In regards to advertising and people actually reading handheld newspapers and books, there has been a recent decline. But in regards to online news sites and people reading with handheld devices such as an iPad or Kindle, it has increased and grown tremendously. According to Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive five forces model, a company must perform each step in the model in the most efficient way possible to achieve the most that they can within the company. This is to add value to the company. Some of the main values to get across in this model are the service, marketing, sales, logistics and operations. The internal environment of a company is also vital to achieve success for the overall company. This includes things such as the various departments, like human resources and the technology departments. Since many companies fail at adding these values to their company it results in an overall loss in profit. Subsequently, the value of actions in the value chain fell short of the values that the companies had to offer. Due to the increase in internet users, there has been a great lack in books and newspapers since the value of the internet exceeds the value of newspapers and books. Personally, hardcover books will always be a personal favorite to myself. However, to the general public, they no longer have the want or need for hardcover books or newspaper subscriptions; because overall, they could be found online for a reduced or free price. Generally, no one cares for hard copies of anything anymore. Essentially, there is no competitive edge in publishing companies. Therefore, the publishing companies have not succeeded in preserving their cost advantage against other competitors, such as the internet. In regards to PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s model, a successful company uses the five forces in their industry. Threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products or services, bargaining power of customers and suppliers and the intensity of competitive rivalry are the forces in the model. Failure or loss of profit in a company or industry would come about if one of the forces in the model were used incorrectly. So when using this model, one must be sure that they are using it properly. Seeing as how publishing companies and newspapers have had such a decline, it is safe to say that they have failed to correctly use PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s model. Overall this leads to hardships within the industry. In regards to the publishing industry, the internet has been the leading the competitor. Since the internet took over, it is used in replace for newspapers and books. Any information seen online is easier to access and more so free than having to subscribe to newspapers, or going into a store to purchase books. The publishing companies have to find new ways to compete to eliminate their revenue decline. Newspapers and publishers are changing their business models to deal with the internet and e-book technology in various ways. Some of the devices that consumers are using are things like smart phones, iPads and tablets; all which replace newspapers and hardcover books. In regards to newspapers, there made it so that consumers can access their products and reports easier and itÃ¢â¬â¢s quicker than going out to buy a newspaper. As well as newspapers, book publishers are also going about by turning their work into digital material making it so that their products can be distributed via online. By online I mean the internet, apps, and online books. Some of the major companies for online books are companies such as Amazon, Google, Kindle, Apple (iBooks) and Google. The most popular types of e-books are Kindles and Google versions. Since newspapers and books are more popular by being accessed online, the costs for any distributions and printing are fundamentally gone. Since most people get there information and the likes via internet, it is a way for publishers to raise revenue by having other companies pay them for using their sites to advertise their products. For instance, Pandora at some point was about to go under until they realized that if companies kept paying them to advertise on the Pandora app and website, it would help them generate revenue since Pandora for the most part is free. Advertising is seen as easy when they can find their target markets and modify their advertisements to fit the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s wants and needs. Since the costs of printing and distribution are essentially gone, newspapers and book publishers can now generate revenue online with the help of advertisements. Newspapers and book publishers can take better advantage of the internet in numerous ways. A main way is to take advantage of online applications and devices such as e-books. Digital media seems to be less expensive than anything being printed on paper and having to be distributed, so this would bring about profit to publishers. To benefit from e-books, it will take good marketing strategies and innovation. There are numerous things to enhance e-books such as animation, sounds, pictures and videos. If publishers learn to partner with major companies associated with e-books it can also help generate additional revenue. As long as publishers meet the demands of consumers, they can stay ahead of the industry and basically make a new competitive advantage. They just have to make sure that the e-books are easily accessible, not too expensive, and faster. Essentially, as long as the publishers continue with innovation it be easier for them to get ahead and to also take better advantage of the internet. I believe that technology will be able to save the newspaper and book publishing industries. Technology will help bring back newspapers and books by creating a new market which is a digital one. These publishers need to create a new market and target market. They need to make sure it can be accessed by anyone who is willing to go for this type of market. They must simply alter the way they go about business and create new advertising and fundamentally this will generate new revenues and hopefully will get rid of any unwanted prior costs. Although the paper and printing presses may no longer exist, as long as the publishing industries remain inventive, they can continue to grow as technology begins to take over our lives, and in doing so create a new market.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
No Turning Back Essay Amna Chowdhrey Ms. Thoromon English/4 27 September 2012 Chapter 4-6 Quotes| Analysis| P:66-67 Ã¢â¬Å"There is a sympathy that will make me conscious of him. I shall see him tremble. I shall feel myself shudder, suddenly and unawares. Sooner or later, he must needs be mine:| HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s husband wants to know who the man is and he wanted revenge on him. This shows how much he still cares about Hester. Even though he did leave her for 2 years because he got captured by the Native Americans, he still loves her and cares for her even after what she has done| P: 75 Ã¢â¬Å"She grew to have a dread of children; for something horrible in this dreary woman, gliding silently through the town, with never any companion but one only child. Ã¢â¬ | Hester is clearly an outcast. And she feels like one too. She is the example that parents use to tell their children what not to do and to show them the consequences of it. This made her feel as if she was the only one who ever committed a sin. This awful agony inside her made her feel worse; on top of that it made her feel lonesome and guilty. | P:86 Ã¢â¬Å"In the afternoon of a certain summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day, after Pearl grew big enough to run about, she amused herself with gathering handfuls of wild-flowers and flinging them, one by one, at her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s bosom, dancing up and down like a little elf whenever she hit the scarlet letter. Ã¢â¬ | Her daughter, Pearl, is brought by great content by such an awful thing. We will write a custom essay sample on No Turning Back specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on No Turning Back specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on No Turning Back specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This shows how young and innocent she is. Even though she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any friends because all the children in society outcast her and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even question it. She is naive as to why they are marginalizing her. | P:79 Ã¢â¬Å"She knew that her deed had been evil; she could have no faith, therefore, that its result would be for good. Day after day, she looked fearfully into the childÃ¢â¬â¢s expanding nature; ever dreading to detect some dark and wild peculiarity, that should correspond with the guiltiness to which she owed her being. | This just comes to show how much the society has changed Hester. At first, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care what people where to whispering about her and her child when she first walked up towards the stage. But there is thought in her mind that her own child could be filled with darkness. | P: 86 Ã¢â¬Å"Once this freakish, elvish cast came into the childÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes while Hester was looking at her own image in them, as mothers are found of doingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ | Hester sees herself in her childÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. She sees that her child will grow up separated from everyone else in the town, and that she will always be detached from others because she was the product of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sin which automatically means she is a sin. | Vocabulary: Alchemy- the medieval forerunner of chemistry, based on the supposed transformation of matter. Infamy- well known for some bad quality or deed Expostulation- express strong disapproval or disagreement Vengeance- punishment inflicted or retribution exacted for an injury or wrong. Constrained- severely restrict the scope, extent, or activity of :
Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Seychelles Traveler essays The Seychelles islands are one of the most magnificent island groups in the world. The Seychelles 115 islands cover an area of over 400,000 square kilometers. This group of islands in the Indian Ocean is northeast of Madagascar. These islands are over a thousand miles away from the nearest mainland coast and lie east of Kenya. The central islands such as Mahe are made up of granite and the inlands of these islands being low mountains. Some of these islands have lush rain forest but much has been depleted. The outer islands are sometimes only feet above sea level and are made by coral, forming reefs or atolls. A large variety of bird, fish, and other animals as well as flora and fauna cover this island paradise. Some being exclusive to these islands. The islands are full of activities but if you please, there are plenty of white sand beaches to ketch some sun. Just offshore some of the best deep sea diving in the world can be found. The coral reefs support a large variety of vegetation and reef fish as well as other forms of aquatic life. Deep sea fishing can be done all year round thanks to the crystal clear waters. There are many diving centers and fishing outfits located thought the Seychelles. The island also has a wide choice of water sports such as snorkeling, wind surfing, swimming, board sports and more. Hikes on the islands, especially to the higher elevations will show you amazing views of the surrounding area. It is very easy to get to the islands by plane from all over Europe and elsewhere with Air Seychelles. Connection flights can be easily arranged. The airlines offers trips from six European capitals and nine major cities to the main island of Mahe weekly. They also offer daily inter-island flights. There are over 20 flights daily between the islands of Mahe and Praslin. Other island hopping flights can be arranged at many of the hotels. Other destinations by air include Bird, Denis, Desroc ...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Three Reasons Companies Move Jobs Either to or from the USA - Assignment Example The USA, being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest economy, does not operate in isolation and effectively companies have moved jobs out and into the country. Conversely, there are different reasons for companies to move jobs out and into the country. While the key reasons for companies moving jobs out of the USA range from labor arbitrage and avoidance bureaucratic regulations, companies moving jobs into the country cite high inflation on wages as the main reason of moving their plants and operations back to the country. This expose therefore elucidates three reasons companies move jobs either from or to the USA. One of the reasons that companies move their jobs overseas, especially the manufacturing processes, is to take advantage of lower wages abroad especially in poor countries. Labor arbitrage is the process of taking advantage of lower wages in any type of business operation (Ã¢â¬Å"Moving back to AmericaÃ¢â¬ ). China is one of the countries that offer cheap labor and essentially companies from the USA move their manufacturing plants to the country in order to lower the cost of production and improve their profit margins. A study conducted in 2002 to determine the manufacturing industryÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation of workers in China, showed that factories in China labor compensated their employees 64 cents an hour. In comparison, the same study found out that a similar compensation in the USA job market stood at $21.11. In this case, companies with manufacturing plants in the USA would want to take advantage of the low labor wages in China and in other countries offering cheap labor. It is crucial to note that companies expect to have a high return on investment (ROI). In effect, one way to ensure that they achieved this objective is through a reduction in the cost of operation. Therefore, cheap labor ensured that the cost of operation remained low and therefore companies achieved the objective of having a high return on investment. However, the USA job market does not offer cheap labor, as most companies would like. While the study only covered the hourly-wages only, a further study with scanty data available in China indicated that this figure of 64 cents rose to $1.06 when considering other benefits and insurance (Ã¢â¬Å"Just How Cheap is Chinese Labor?Ã¢â¬ ). This figure is still relatively low in comparison to the USA labor and explained companyÃ¢â¬â¢s preference for the Chinese labor marke t. Labor arbitrage might be the main reason that American based companies cut their workforce in the country in order to expand abroad in the 2000s. In this regard, the Chinese job market witnessed 260% additional jobs by America based companies that translated into 943,900 jobs since 1999 to 2009 (Wessel). In this case, it is imperative to point out that cheap labor might be the key reason that attracted these multinationals to the Chinese job market. To prove this point, these US based multinationals decreased their job levels in Germany by 2% while jobs in the UK and France labor markets increased by 8% and 2% respectively (Wessel). It is crucial to note that, the same study that showed the average labor wages for china as $1.03 showed that he same wages paid to a factory worker in these three countries averaged $14.22 (Ã¢â¬Å"Just How Cheap Is Chinese Labor Market?Ã¢â¬ ). The availability of cheap labor is not the only reason that makes USA based